Santa Clara Valley Water District

Water Intelligence


Water Resources Data

Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC)
Description: "Its mission is to keep drinking water and wastewater utility managers informed about potential risks to the nation's water infrastructure from contamination, terrorism and cyber threats. The mission has been expanded to help utilities respond to and recover from all hazards." Water industry professionals may subscribe to WaterISAC Pro. Tutorials are offered regularly to current and prospective subscribers.
Geographic Coverage: United States

USGS Real-Time Water Data for the Nation
Description: Surface water, streamflow, groundwater, and water quality data for the nation (approx. 1.5 million sites in all 50 states, District of Columbia, and territories. Real time and historic data. (National Water Information System, NWIS)
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Geographic Coverage: United States

CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS)
Description: "An internet-based system for sharing hydrologic data. It is comprised of databases and servers, connected through web services, to client applications, allowing for for the publication, discovery and access of data." (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science)
Geographic Coverage: United States

Water Data Library
Description: Hydrologic data: groundwater level data, water quality data, continuous data (such as surface water flow), and some climate data collected by DWR. Archived DWR bulletins
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Geographic Coverage: California (Statewide)

Integrated Water Resources Information Systems (IWRIS)
Description: "IWRIS is a data management tool for water resources data. It is a web based GIS application that allows you to access, integrate, query, and visualize multiple sets of data. Some of the databases include DWR Water Data Library, California Data Exchange Center (CDEC), USGS streamflow, Local Groundwater Assistance Grants (AB303), and data from local agencies."
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Geographic Coverage: California (Statewide)

California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN)
Description: A system designed to facilitate integration and sharing of water and environmental resources data of the State of California, such as historic bioaccumulation of toxic substances, sportfish contamination, stream pollution trends, and sediment toxicity.
Geographic Coverage: California (Statewide)

California Data Exchange Center (CDEC)
Description: Installs, maintains, and operates an extensive hydrologic data collection network including automatic snow reporting gages for the Cooperative Snow Surveys Program and precipitation and river stage sensors for flood forecasting.
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Geographic Coverage: California (Statewide)

Popular Documents and Data (Santa Clara Valley Water District)
Description: Links to stream gauge data, groundwater elevation data, well records information, GIS data, flood maps, dam inundation maps, Board information, and other often asked-for information from SCVWD.
Source: Santa Clara Valley Water District
Geographic Coverage: Santa Clara County

Data Communication (Examples)

  • Monthly water tracker is a monthly report that monitors water supply trends and conditions, water use and conservation.
  • Monthly water quality reports provide information on the quality of source (untreated) water at each of the district's three water treatment plants, and the treated water which the district delivers to water retailers in Santa Clara Valley.
  • Groundwater monitoring reports contain monthly groundwater conditions reports, and annual groundwater quality reports for evaluating current groundwater conditions and land subsidence, optimizing recharge efforts, assessing groundwater storage, and supporting groundwater management efforts.
  • Monitoring wells groundwater elevation data

Decision Support Processes (Examples)

Models and Tools

Water and Climate: Observations from Seattle
Description: How Seattle Public Utilities is downscaling global climate models to make projections for the region. (Kersnar, J. and P. Fleming, 2009)
Publication Date: Sep 21, 2009

Statistical Downscaling Using Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA)
Description: "A new technique for statistically downscaling climate model simulations of daily temperature and precipitation is introduced and demonstrated over the western United States. The localized constructed analogs (LOCA) method produces downscaled estimates suitable for hydrological simulations using a multiscale spatial matching scheme to pick appropriate analog days from observations. First, a pool of candidate observed analog days is chosen by matching the model field to be downscaled to observed days over the region that is positively correlated with the point being downscaled, which leads to a natural independence of the downscaling results to the extent of the domain being downscaled. Then, the one candidate analog day that best matches in the local area around the grid cell being downscaled is the single analog day used there. Most grid cells are downscaled using only the single locally selected analog day, but locations whose neighboring cells identify a different analog day use a weighted combination of the center and adjacent analog days to reduce edge discontinuities. By contrast, existing constructed analog methods typically use a weighted average of the same 30 analog days for the entire domain. By greatly reducing this averaging, LOCA produces better estimates of extreme days, constructs a more realistic depiction of the spatial coherence of the downscaled field, and reduces the problem of producing too many light-precipitation days. The LOCA method is more computationally expensive than existing constructed analog techniques, but it is still practical for downscaling numerous climate model simulations with limited computational resources." (Pierce, D. W., et al., 2014, Journal of Hydrometeorology)
Publication Date: Jul 7, 2014

Southwest Climate and Environmental Information Collaborative (SCENIC)
Description: Look up current and historic climate data, such as temperature, precipitation, snowfall, pan evaporation. Use tools to display your data. Check the climate dashboard for current conditions regionally and nationally. (Southwest Climate Science Center)

NOAA Western Region Climate Service Providers Database
Description: "Looking for expert assistance on climate issues but unsure where to start? The Climate Services Provider Database is a directory of climate service providers in the Western U.S. You can search the site for the type of information or service you're seeking, such as workshops, decision support tools, vulnerability assessments, training and education, etc. You can also search by geographic area or sector served to find which provider(s) serve that area. Once you find a match, please visit the provider's website or contact them directly for more information."
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication Date: May 9, 2017

Joint Front Range Climate Change Vulnerability Study
Description: "Incorporates a unified regional approach to assess changes in the timing and volume of hydrologic runoff that might be expected from several climate change scenarios for the years 2040 and 2070. Calibrates and implements two hydrologic models, the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) model and the Sacramento Soil Moisture model. Also draws on historical streamflow data from the Colorado Water Conservation Board, regionally downscaled projections from the Bureau of Reclamation, and discussions with Western Water Assessment."
Source: Water Research Foundation
Publication Date: Feb 1, 2012

Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections
Description: Projections of precipitation, minimum and maximum surface air temperature for 1950-2099 for the Western U.S.
Source: United States. Bureau of Reclamation
Publication Date: May 7, 2013

Colorado River Myths and Realities: The Coming Conflict
Description: Presentation by Bradley Udall, University of Colorado Law School. "Climate change is water change." Discussion of predicted shortfall of Colorado River water, recent floods, problems of modeling and prediction.
Publication Date: Sep 16, 2013

Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA): Our Work
Description: Papers on using regional climate data to do water planning and modeling.
Publication Date: Oct 1, 2013

Water Erosion Prediction Project Climate Assessment Tool (WEPPCAT)
Description: Tool to model erosion with climate change. Keywords: WEPP CAT
Source: United States. Dept. of Agriculture
Publication Date: Jun 30, 2009

USGS Coastal Change Hazards Portal
Description: Shows degress of risk from extreme storms, shoreline change, sea-level rise.
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Jul 16, 2014

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit
Description: Aggregates in one place tools, data, and maps from federal government agencies. Topics covered include water resources, coastal flood risk, ecosystem vulnerability, food resilience, and human health.
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication Date: Nov 17, 2014

U.S. Climate Atlas
Description: "These maps are based on the new nClimDiv (New Climate Division) dataset which uses daily observations of temperature and precipitation from over 10,000 stations in the U.S. NCEI scientists are using new methodologies to quality control the daily data, summarize the daily data into monthly values, and creating maps to visualize the information. There are maps for minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation. There are two types of data that can be displayed; maps for a particular month and year from 1895 to present, or climatology maps. The climatology maps represent average values from 1981 to 2010. These are also known as the '1981-2010 Normals'."
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication Date: Apr 18, 2016

Tools for Coastal Climate Adaptation Planning
Description: Report aims "to provide the information necessary for coastal natural resource managers and community planners to select appropriate tools for their projects." (NatureServe)
Publication Date: Mar 13, 2013

Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States
Description: (Aug. 2011)
Source: United States. Dept. of the Interior
Publication Date: Oct 3, 2011

Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)
Description: "EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas. There are many applications for drainage systems in non-urban areas as well." Optional add-in: a Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Oct 9, 2014

Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists
Description: "This sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components; utility options for setting sea-level rise and climate change scenarios; and ease or difficulty of storing, displaying, or interpreting model output. Coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists can benefit from this synthesis of tools and models that have been developed for projecting causes and consequences of sea-level change on the landscape and seascape." (Professional Paper 1815)
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Aug 24, 2015

Sea Level Rise Viewer
Description: "Being able to visualize potential impacts from sea level rise is a powerful teaching and planning tool, and the Sea Level Rise Viewer brings this capability to coastal communities. A slider bar is used to show how various levels of sea level rise will impact coastal communities. ... Visuals and the accompanying data and information cover sea level rise inundation, uncertainty, flood frequency, marsh impacts, and socioeconomics." Keyword: NOAA
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Scenario-Based Projected Changes Map
Description: Zoom in on an area to get projected changes in annual total precipitation, annual average temperature, precipitation intensity for the 100-year storm, and sea-level rise under three different scenarios (hotter-drier, warmer-wetter, and middle-distribution) for 2035 and 2060.
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency

Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment
Description: Compares two climate scenarios. "Both sets of simulations for the moderate to high emissions scenarios indicate that future warming will increase temperatures well beyond typical historical occurrences. Along with average temperatures, the models also project changes for a variety of climate extremes, including maximum temperatures, which they project will increase. Most of the differences between the CMIP3 and CMIP5 projections are likely due to the CMIP5 scenarios covering a larger range of possible future greenhouse gas concentrations, resulting in a wider range of climate outcomes in the CMIP5 simulations. In both sets of simulations, projections for precipitation changes indicate that the United States straddles the transition zone between wetter conditions across the higher mid-latitudes which includes the northern U.S. to drier conditions in the subtropics which includes the U.S. southwest in the winter and spring. Regional patterns of projected precipitation changes do vary somewhat between CMIP3 and CMIP5, reflecting both differences in scenarios and the fact that precipitation projections tend to vary more widely among different climate models."
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication Date: Jul 31, 2015

Preparing Hydro-climate Inputs for Climate Change in Water Resource Planning
Description: "This module describes the process of selecting the best available climate projection information and using it to develop 'climate-adjusted weather' inputs to be used for modeling climate change impacts. These modeled impacts can be used for planning of future water resources. Specific steps of this process include: 1) Recognizing the general science and terms associated with Atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs); 2) Making AOGCMs more regionally applicable through bias correction and downscaling; 3) Determining climate change scenarios based on climate projections and selecting specific projections to inform each scenario; and 4) Developing climate-adjusted weather inputs associated with each climate change scenario."
Publication Date: Oct 25, 2012

Options for Improving Climate Modeling to Assist Water Utility Planning for Climate Change
Description: Report "explains how climate models work, describes how some WUCA members have used climate models and downscaling to assess impacts on their systems and develop adaptation options, and makes seven initial recommendations for how climate modeling and downscaling techniques can be improved so that these tools and techniques can be more useful for the water sector. However, a key finding of the report is that for the next few years, maybe a decade or so, significant uncertainties will remain about how climate will change at the scale utilities make decisions.... In the short run, it is possible with existing technology, such as models and observations, to more completely understand the range of potential changes in climate."
Source: Water Utility Climate Alliance
Publication Date: Dec 9, 2009

On bias correction in drought frequency analysis based on climate models
Description: "Assessment of future drought characteristics based on climate models is difficult as climate models usually have bias in simulating precipitation frequency and intensity. In this study, we examine the significance of bias correction in the context of drought frequency and scenario analysis using output from climate models. In particular, we use three bias correction techniques with different emphases and complexities to investigate how they affect the results of drought frequency and severity based on climate models. The characteristics of drought are investigated using regional climate model (RCM) output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to compare and forecast drought characteristics at different timescales. Systematic biases in the RCM precipitation output are corrected against the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data and the bias-corrected RCM historical simulations. Preserving mean and standard deviation of NARR precipitation is essential in drought frequency analysis. The results demonstrate that bias correction significantly decreases the RCM errors in reproducing drought frequency derived from the NARR data. Different timescales of input precipitation in the bias corrections show similar results. The relative changes in drought frequency in future scenario compared to historical scenario are similar whether both scenarios are bias corrected or both are not bias corrected." (Aryal, Y. and J. Zhu, 2016, Climatic Change)
Publication Date: Dec 10, 2016

NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit
Description: "The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. The WCT also provides access to weather/climate web services provided from NCDC and other organizations. The WCT provides tools for background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats"
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling
Description: "Climate models will need to evolve substantially to deliver climate projections at the scale and level of detail desired by decision makers, this report finds. As climate change has pushed climate patterns outside of historic norms, the need for detailed projections is growing across all sectors, including agriculture, insurance, and emergency preparedness planning. Despite much recent progress in developing reliable climate models, there are still efficiencies to be gained across the large and diverse U.S. climate modeling community. Evolving to a more unified climate modeling enterprise -- in particular by developing a common software infrastructure shared by all climate researchers, and holding an annual climate modeling forum -- could help speed progress."
Source: National Academies
Publication Date: Sep 7, 2012

National Climate Change Viewer
Description: "The NCCV allows users to visualize projected changes in climate (maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation) and the water balance (snow water equivalent, runoff, soil water storage and evaporative deficit) for any state, county and USGS Hydrologic Units (HUC)." Different climate models can be specified as well.
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: May 8, 2014

NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30)
Description: "Worldwide climate modeling centers participating in the 5th Climate Model Assessment Program (CMIP5) are providing climate information for the ongoing Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The output from the global climate models is typically provided on grids on the order of ~1 to 3 degrees in latitude and longitude (roughly 80 to 230 km at 45 degrees latitude). To derive higher resolution data sets from the global models, NASA has downscaled the CMIP5 model temperature and precipitation data using statistical methods to produce the NEX-DCP30 data on a very fine 800-m grid that covers the continental United States (CONUS) for a variety of climate change assessments that require higher resolution data."
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Dec 10, 2013

Methods, Models, Tools, and Databases for Water Research
Description: Great collection of EPA's most valuable tools for water professionals.
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency

MACA Statistically Downscaled Climate Data from CMIP5
Description: Climate data that can be used for local and regional scenarios. Questions and answers from USGS. MACA=Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Jul 20, 2016

Looking Forward: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate: National Action Plan Update
Description: Recommends federal actions to support water resilience in the areas of data and research, planning and decision support, and training and outreach. Includes an inventory of major hydro-dlimatic data collection systems in the United States.
Publication Date: Dec 5, 2016

Local Greenhouse Gas Inventory Tool
Description: "EPA's Local Greenhouse Gas Inventory Tool was developed to help communities across the United States to evaluate their greenhouse gas emissions. Use this tool to compile a greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory for your entire community or for local government operations in particular."
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency

LOCA Statistical Downscaling (Localized Constructed Analogs)
Description: "LOCA is a statistical downscaling technique that uses past history to add improved fine-scale detail to global climate models. We have used LOCA to downscale 32 global climate models from the CMIP5 archive at a 1/16th degree spatial resolution, covering North America from central Mexico through Southern Canada. The historical period is 1950-2005, and there are two future scenarios available: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 over the period 2006-2100 (although some models stop in 2099). The variables currently available are daily minimum and maximum temperature, and daily precipitation. Over the next year we will begin running the VIC hydrological model with the downscaled data, which will give many more variables, such as snow cover, soil moisture, runoff, and humidity, all at a 1/16th degree spatial resolution on a daily timescale."
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Sep 12, 2016

Interagency Water Resources and Climate Change Workgroup
Description: Site for updates to "Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate: National Action Plan."
Publication Date: May 18, 2016

Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS)
Description: Generate maps of scenarios for housing density, impervious surfaces, and county populations.
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Apr 29, 2016

Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate
Description: Concludes that the U.S. is unprepared for climate change and that government scientific agencies must organize to provide decision-support.
Source: National Academies
Publication Date: Mar 12, 2009

Guidelines for Constructing Climate Scenarios
Description: "Scientists and others from academia, government, and the private sector increasingly are using climate model outputs in research and decision support. For the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 18 global modeling centers contributed outputs from hundreds of simulations, coordinated through the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3), to the archive at the Program for Climate Model Diagnostics and Intercomparison (PCMDI; [Meehl et al., 2007]. Many users of climate model outputs prefer downscaled data--i.e., data at higher spatial resolution--to direct global climate model (GCM) outputs; downscaling can be statistical [e.g., Maurer et al., 2007] or dynamical [e.g., Mearns et al., 2009]. More than 800 users have obtained downscaled CMIP3 results from one such Web site alone (see, described by Maurer et al. [2007])." (Mote, P., et al., 2011, Eos)
Publication Date: Aug 2, 2011

Future projections and uncertainty assessment of extreme rainfall intensity in the United States from an ensemble of climate models
Description: "Changes in climate are expected to lead to changes in the characteristics extreme rainfall frequency and intensity. In this study, we propose an integrated approach to explore potential changes in intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships. The approach incorporates uncertainties due to both the short simulation periods of regional climate models (RCMs) and the differences in IDF curves derived from multiple RCMs in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). The approach combines the likelihood of individual RCMs according to the goodness of fit between the extreme rainfall intensities from the RCMs' historic runs and those from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data set and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to assess uncertainty in IDF predictions. We also partition overall uncertainties into within-model uncertainty and among-model uncertainty. Results illustrate that among-model uncertainty is the dominant source of the overall uncertainty in simulating extreme rainfall for multiple locations in the U.S., pointing to the difficulty of predicting future climate, especially extreme rainfall regimes. For all locations a more intense extreme rainfall occurs in future climate; however the rate of increase varies among locations." (Zhu, J., et al., 2012, Climatic Change)
Publication Date: Nov 25, 2012

First National Expert and Stakeholder Workshop on Water Infrastructure Sustainability and Adaptation to Climate Change
Description: A wide range of perspectives by water experts on projecting climate change and planning for it
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Jan 7, 2009

Ecosystem-Based Management Tools Network
Description: Includes information about tools (models, software), projects, organizations, and practitioners involved in coastal and marine ecosystems.

Digital Shoreline Analysis System
Description: "Computer software that computes rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions residing in a geographic information system." (NOAA Digital Coast)
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

CREAT Climate Scenarios Projection Map
Description: "The impacts from a changing climate, including extreme heat and more intense storms, present challenges to water, wastewater, and stormwater utilities and the communities they serve. Understanding how climate change may affect a utility's ability to maintain and deliver adequate, reliable, and sustainable water supplies and clean water services is the first step in climate-related planning." Maps present scenarios for future temperature, precipitation, storms, extreme heat, sea level.
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency

Co-producing actionable science for water utilities
Description: "This article explores the efforts of four water utilities to co-produce actionable science by forging partnerships with scientific institutions to explore integrating climate considerations into their specific management context. The experiences of these four utilities and their scientific partners, as part of the Piloting Utility Modeling Applications project of the Water Utility Climate Alliance, provide a wealth of empirical evidence to illustrate some of the core concepts formulated to explain how to produce usable information and how to link research to decision making. Through these four case studies of co-production, we identify three findings that bridge principles and practice: each utility engaged in contextualizing research; in building and leveraging knowledge networks; and in embracing an entrepreneurial approach to their research agenda. In several instances, unanticipated but innovative assessment techniques were developed by science partners in collaboration with water utilities to fit the utility’s specific needs. The paper concludes by discussing some of the hard realities of co-production illustrated by these cases that should be kept in mind by people contemplating similar projects." (Vogel, J., et al., 2016, Climate Services)
Source: Water Utility Climate Alliance
Publication Date: Jul 7, 2016

Comprehensive Evaluation of Projects with Respect to Sea-Level Change
Description: Includes a sea-level change curve calculator, which the Corps uses to make low, medium, and high projections for sea level rise. Also links to the latest Corps policies and guidelines.
Source: United States. Army Corps of Engineers
Publication Date: Feb 26, 2015

Communication of the role of natural variability in future North American climate
Description: "As climate models improve, decision-makers' expectations for accurate climate predictions are growing. Natural climate variability, however, poses inherent limits to climate predictability and the related goal of adaptation guidance in many places, as illustrated here for North America. Other locations with low natural variability show a more predictable future in which anthropogenic forcing can be more readily identified, even on small scales. We call for a more focused dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public to improve communication and avoid raising expectations for accurate regional predictions everywhere." (Deser, C., et al., 2012, Nature Climate Change)
Publication Date: Nov 14, 2012
Description: "Here you can find data related to climate change that can help inform and prepare America’s communities, businesses, and citizens. Initially, in this pilot phase, you can find data and resources related to coastal flooding, sea level rise, and their impacts. Over time, you will be able to find additional data and tools relevant to other important climate-related impacts, including risks to human health, the food supply, and energy infrastructure."
Source: United States.
Publication Date: Mar 19, 2014

Climate Science Special Report
Description: "This report is an authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States. It represents the first of two volumes of the Fourth National Climate Assessment, mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990." Keyword: NCA4
Source: United States. Global Change Research Program
Publication Date: Nov 3, 2017

Climate Modeling 101
Description: Understanding climate and climate models, constructing a climate model, validating a climate model, users and developers of climate models.
Source: National Academies
Publication Date: Sep 10, 2012

Climate Information: A National System Could Help Federal, State, Local, and Private Sector Decision Makers Use Climate Information
Description: "This report examines (1) the extent to which federal efforts meet the climate information needs of decision makers; (2) examples of how other countries organized climate information systems; (3) whether and how federal efforts could be improved; and (4) the strengths and limitations of different options to provide climate information. GAO analyzed reports; reviewed systems in three other countries; and interviewed stakeholders with knowledge of climate information."
Publication Date: Dec 8, 2015

Climate Data Online
Description: "Climate Data Online (CDO) provides free access to NCDC's archive of historical weather and climate data in addition to station history information. These data include quality controlled daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly measurements of temperature, precipitation, wind, and degree days as well as radar data and 30-year Climate Normals. Customers can also order most of these data as certified hard copies for legal use." The search tool, mapping tool, and data tool help you find what you want.
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Climate Change Technical Briefings
Description: Among the topics in the two-page briefings: Climate models and scenarios, regional climate downscaling, climate vulnerability assessment, adaptation planning, water supply reliability, water demand impacts, water quality impacts, coastal zone impacts. Keywords: Technical briefing paper.
Source: Water Research Foundation
Publication Date: Nov 10, 2009

Climate Adaptation Planning Builds Water Utility Resilience
Description: "Climate change and extreme weather events can pose significant challenges for drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater utilities. The US Environmental Protection Agency has developed an array of customizable software tools for understanding and assessing threats related to climate change to help utilities prepare for and be more resilient to such challenges." (Dubin, L., 2015, Opflow)
Publication Date: Mar 1, 2015

California Basin Characterization Model: A Dataset of Historical and Future Hydrologic Response to Climate Change
Description: "To plan for future water- and land-resource demands, resource managers have generally relied on data from global climate model projections of precipitation and air temperature trends that lack the detail needed for precision planning at regional and local scales. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed modeling tools that integrate climate data with rigorously developed regional and local environmental data to understand the hydrologic response to climate change and the effects on regional and local watersheds and landscapes. New water-balance modeling tools can provide the types of information managers require to develop climate-change coping strategies: (1) Watershed recharge and runoff quantification -- to assess water availability, seasonality, and extremes at the land surface; (2) Climatic water deficit estimation -- to assess irrigation demand or landscape stress (climatic water deficit is the amount of water plants would use if it were available); (3)Spatial distribution of hydrologic processes in watersheds -- for resource planning and infrastructure development." Fact sheet.
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Feb 9, 2015

Build [Climate] Resilience at Your Utility
Description: Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) "EPA has developed CREAT, a [web-based] software tool to assist drinking water and wastewater utility owners and operators in understanding potential climate change threats and in assessing the related risks at their individual utilities. … CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address these impacts using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making. CREAT provides libraries of drinking water and wastewater utility assets (e.g., water resources, treatment plants, pump stations) that could be impacted by climate change, possible climate change-related threats (e.g., flooding, drought, water quality), and adaptive measures that can be implemented to reduce the impacts of climate change."
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Dec 17, 2010

BASINS Climate Assessment Tool (CAT)
Description: Modeling tool allows users to create climate change scenarios for watersheds. Works with EPA's BASINS modeling system. Keywords: BASINS CAT
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Jun 26, 2009

BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)
Description: "This final report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources (BASINS) and the Water Erosion Prediction Project Climate Assessment Tool (WEPPCAT). The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments of the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality."
Source: United States. Environmental Protection Agency
Publication Date: Aug 1, 2012

Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability
Description: "More accurate forecasts of climate conditions over time periods of weeks to a few years could help people plan agricultural activities, mitigate drought, and manage energy resources, amongst other activities; however, current forecast systems have limited ability on these time-scales. Models for such climate forecasts must take into account complex interactions among the ocean, atmosphere, and land surface. Such processes can be difficult to represent realistically. To improve the quality of forecasts, this book makes recommendations about the development of the tools used in forecasting and about specific research goals for improving understanding of sources of predictability. To improve the accessibility of these forecasts to decision-makers and researchers, this book also suggests best practices to improve how forecasts are made and disseminated."
Source: National Academies
Publication Date: Sep 14, 2010

Our Coast, Our Future
Description: Contains "modeling results for sea level rise and storm surge in the San Francisco Bay area." From a consortium of government agencies and nonprofits.

Modeling Sea-Level Rise in San Francisco Bay Estuary
Description: "It is the aim of our program to provide site specific sea-level rise predictions to land managers through the intensive collection of field data and innovative predictive modeling. In 2009 and 2010, thousands of elevation and vegetation survey points were collected in salt marsh at 12 sites surrounding San Francisco Bay. The elevation data was synthesized into a continuous elevation model for each site, providing land owners valuable baseline data. A new marsh accretion model, WARMER, (Swanson et al., submitted) was developed to assess the risk of sea-level rise to salt marsh parcels around San Francisco Bay. Additional sediment data was collected at four representative sites to provide inputs for the WARMER model. The results of WARMER were then extrapolated to the remaining study sites. WARMER indicates that most salt marsh around San Francisco Bay will transition from high to mid marsh by 2040, to low marsh by 2060 and to mudflat by 2080, however there is a great deal of variation around the bay. The rate of sea-level rise and local accretion rates may be very different than the parameters used for the model, thus WARMER results are best characterized as one possible scenario of how the salt marsh platform may respond to rising sea-levels." The project produced: "Final Report for Sea-Level Rise Response Modeling for San Francisco Bay Estuary Tidal Marshes" (2013)
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Apr 17, 2013

Improving Quantitative Precipitation Information for the San Francisco Bay Region
Description: White paper on how Bay Area officials can get the data they need for water supply and flood management planning.
Publication Date: Jan 11, 2011

Downscaling Future Climate Projections to the Watershed Scale: a North San Francisco Bay Estuary Case Study
Description: "We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000-2100)." (Micheli, E., et al., 2012, San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science)
Publication Date: Dec 19, 2012

Climate Change Adaptations for Local Water Management in the San Francisco Bay Area
Description: "Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff in California. These climate change impacts will affect the reliability of water supplies and operations of California's water supply system. To meet future urban water demands in the San Francisco Bay Area, local water managers can adapt by changing water supply portfolios and operations. An engineering economic model, CALVIN, which optimizes water supply operations and allocations for the State of California, was used to explore the effects on water supply of a severely warm dry climate and substantial sea level rise, and to identify economically promising long-term adaptations for San Francisco Bay Area water systems. This reconnaissance level modeling suggests that even under fairly severe forms of climate change, Bay Area urban water demands can be largely met, but at a cost."
Source: California Climate Change Center
Publication Date: Jul 31, 2012

Towards operational predictions of the near-term climate
Description: "Near-term climate predictions -- which operate on annual to decadal timescales -- offer benefits for climate adaptation and resilience, and are thus important for society. Although skillful near-term predictions are now possible, particularly when coupled models are initialized from the current climate state (most importantly from the ocean), several scientific challenges remain, including gaps in understanding and modelling the underlying physical mechanisms. This Perspective discusses how these challenges can be overcome, outlining concrete steps towards the provision of operational near-term climate predictions. Progress in this endeavour will bridge the gap between current seasonal forecasts and century-scale climate change projections, allowing a seamless climate service delivery chain to be established." (Kushnir, Y., et al., Nature Climate Change, 2019)
Publication Date: Jan 21, 2019

The future of climate modeling
Description: "Recently a number of scientists have proposed substantial changes to the practice of climate modeling, though they disagree over what those changes should be. We provide an overview and critical examination of three leading proposals: the unified approach, the hierarchy approach and the pluralist approach. The unified approach calls for an accelerated development of high-resolution models within a seamless prediction framework. The hierarchy approach calls for more attention to the development and systematic study of hierarchies of related models, with the aim of advancing understanding. The pluralist approach calls for greater diversity in modeling efforts, including, on some of its variants, more attention to empirical modeling. After identifying some of the scientific and institutional challenges faced by these proposals, we consider their expected gains and costs, relative to a business-as-usual modeling scenario. We find the proposals to be complementary, having valuable synergies. But since resource limitations make it unlikely that all three will be pursued, we offer some reflections on more limited changes in climate modeling that seem well within reach and that can be expected to yield substantial benefits." (Katzav, J. and W. S. Parker, 2015, Climatic Change)
Publication Date: Jun 18, 2015

Global Change and Extreme Hydrology: Testing Conventional Wisdom
Description: "The National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Hydrologic Sciences (COHS) convened a workshop, titled Global Change and Extreme Hydrologic Events: Testing Conventional Wisdom, to promote dialogue across the science and water resource management communities with respect to climate change and its links to extreme hydrologic events, specifically floods and droughts. The workshop's purpose was to probe the conventional wisdom that as the climate warms there will be an 'acceleration' of the hydrologic cycle that will translate into potentially more frequent and severe floods and droughts."
Source: National Academies
Publication Date: Aug 24, 2011

CMIP5 Updated Climate Models: Implications for Western Water Management
Description: "The results from the global climate models behind the latest IPCC Assessment, now in its fifth iteration, have been released. These models, called CMIP5, have been downscaled for western states by the US Bureau of Reclamation. Many western water managers have been using the CMIP3 downscaled climate projections to plan for the effects of climate change on their water systems. Now that the CMIP5 projections have been released, many water managers are wondering what this means for those who have invested considerable time and resources into using past projections. Do they need to start over? Can they integrate the new information into planning they've already done? Can they stand by their vulnerability assessments which used CMIP3 projections?" (Carpe Diem West Academy)
Publication Date: Oct 1, 2013

Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations
Description: (Final Report, Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.1) (SAP 3.1)
Source: United States. Climate Change Science Program
Publication Date: Jul 31, 2008

A simple technique for estimating an allowance for uncertain sea-level rise
Description: "Projections of climate change are inherently uncertain, leading to considerable debate over suitable allowances for future changes such as sea-level rise (an 'allowance' is, in this context, the amount by which something, such as the height of coastal infrastructure, needs to be altered to cope with climate change). Words such as 'plausible' and 'high-end' abound, with little objective or statistically valid support. It is firstly shown that, in cases in which extreme events are modified by an uncertain change in the average (e.g. flooding caused by a rise in mean sea level), it is preferable to base future allowances on estimates of the expected frequency of exceedances rather than on the probability of at least one exceedance. A simple method of determining a future sea-level rise allowance is then derived, based on the projected rise in mean sea level and its uncertainty, and on the variability of present tides and storm surges ('storm tides'). The method preserves the expected frequency of flooding events under a given projection of sea-level rise." (Hunter, J., 2011, Climatic Change)
Publication Date: Nov 23, 2011

A holistic approach to guide development of future climate scenarios for water-resource applications
Description: "Changes in climate are expected to have a substantial impact on water resources. Consequently, numerous hydrologists have studied the widely recognized challenge of using climate-change projections to address questions related to management of future water resources. Significant effort has been invested in formulating methods to overcome the difference in spatial scales between available future climate scenarios and water management needs. While numerous downscaling options exist, resource evaluation for the various approaches is rarely discussed -- most assessments are focused on evaluating the skill of different methodologies. In this study, a framework is described that water managers can use 1) to identify their climate-scenario needs and 2) to assess their financial, computing, time, and workforce resource limitations for climate-scenario development. This framework will enable water-resource managers to optimize the use of their available resources when developing future climate scenarios." (Puma, M. J., 2012, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education)
Publication Date: Apr 3, 2012

Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP)
Description: "A user-friendly software tool that takes an integrated approach to water resources planning." Includes a water balance database, scenario generation tool, and policy analysis tool. There is a fee for downloading and licensing the software.

Partnership for Resilience and Preparedness
Description: Data gathered from public and private sources, including downscaled temperature and precipitation projections and drought and flood data. Includes Sonoma County Water Agency's climate resilience dashboard.
Source: United States.
Publication Date: Sep 22, 2016

NEX Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections
Description: "The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and across two of the four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios known as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The CMIP5 GCM runs were developed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). The NEX-GDDP dataset includes downscaled projections for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from the 21 models and scenarios for which daily scenarios were produced and distributed under CMIP5. Each of the climate projections includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation for the periods from 1950 through 2100. The spatial resolution of the dataset is 0.25 degrees (~25 km x 25 km)." The dataset is available at
Publication Date: Jun 9, 2015

Description: "FetchClimate provides ready access to complex geographical information including, but not limited to, climatological information. On accessing the FetchClimate Azure web service, you simply need to perform four steps to find what you are looking for: 1.Draw the location on the Earth via points or grids (Where?) 2.Specify the data of interest (What?) 3.Set the timeframe, including future predictions, and a combination of averages over -- or steps through -- years, days, and hours (When?) 4.Fetch and view your results." (Microsoft Research) Requires IE 10 or higher, Chrome, or Firefox.

Climate Prediction Center GIS Portal
Description: Displays precipitation, sea-surface temperature, and global forecast system data on a world map.
Source: United States. National Weather Service

Climate Data Guide
Description: "Search and access 190 data sets covering the Atmosphere, Ocean, Land and more. Explore climate indices, reanalyses and satellite data and understand their application to climate model metrics. This is the only data portal that combines data discovery, metadata, figures and world-class expertise on the strengths, limitations and applications of climate data." (National Center for Atmospheric Research)

Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE)
Description: This site has case studies (including some water utilities), a virtual library (reports, etc.), directory, tools (such as modeling software), and community events.
Publication Date: Jul 4, 2010

Using Future Climate Projections to Support Water Resources Decision Making in California
Description: "This paper presents several advances in using future climate projection information in water resources planning, such as an improved understanding of how well selected climate models represent historical climate conditions and refined methodologies for representing streamflows, outdoor urban and agricultural water demands, and sea level rise in planning tools." Final: Aug. 2009
Source: California Climate Change Center
Publication Date: Aug 31, 2009

Urban Water Demand in California to 2100: Incorporating Climate Change
Description: "For this study, the Pacific Institute has developed a computer model to integrate many of these factors into a simulation of California's future urban water use to the year 2100. Urban water use refers to water used in cities and suburbs, and in homes in rural areas. It is a large category that represents most water use other than agriculture and mining. It includes residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional uses. We conduct several sensitivity analyses to analyze how future urban water demand is likely to respond to changes in climate, population, and conservation efforts. Our urban water use simulation model can be used as a tool for California water managers to compare different possible futures by altering the greenhouse gas emissions scenario (A2 or B1 emissions scenarios); population projections; the level of implementation of various conservation and efficiency measures; and other factors." Also available: Urban Water Demand Model. (Aug. 2012)
Source: Pacific Institute
Publication Date: Aug 16, 2012

Tools for Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change
Description: Sources for data for evaluating the impacts of climate change. (California Climate Commons)

The Utility of Daily Large-Scale Climate Data in the Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Daily Streamflow in California
Description: "Three statistical downscaling methods were applied to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (used as a surrogate for the best possible general circulation model), and the downscaled meteorology was used to drive a hydrologic model over California. The historic record was divided into an 'observed' period of 1950-1976 to provide the basis for downscaling, and a 'projected' period of 1977=-999 for assessing skill. The downscaling methods included a biascorrection/spatial downscaling method (BCSD), which relies solely on monthly large scale meteorology and resamples the historical record to obtain daily sequences, a constructed analogues approach (CA), which uses daily large-scale anomalies, and a hybrid method (BCCA) using a quantile-mapping bias correction on the large-scale data prior to the CA approach. At 11 sites we compared three simulated daily flow statistics: streamflow timing, 3-day peak flow, and 7-day low flow. While all downscaling methods produced reasonable streamflow statistics at most locations, the BCCA method consistently outperformed the other methods, capturing the daily large-scale skill and translating it to simulated streamflows that more skillfully reproduced observationally-driven streamflows." (Maurer, E. P., et al., 2010, Hydrology and Earth Science Systems)
Publication Date: Jun 30, 2010

SGMA Climate Change Resources
Description: "This dataset includes processed climate change datasets related to climatology, hydrology, and water operations. The climatological data provided are change factors for precipitation and reference evapotranspiration gridded over the entire State. The hydrological data provided are projected stream inflows for major streams in the Central Valley, and streamflow change factors for areas outside of the Central Valley and smaller ungaged watersheds within the Central Valley. The water operations data provided are Central Valley reservoir outflows, diversions, and State Water Project (SWP) and Central Valley Project (CVP) water deliveries and select streamflow data. Most of the Central Valley inflows and all of the water operations data were simulated using the CalSim II model and produced for all projections. . . . Data are provided for projected climate conditions centered around 2030 and 2070. The climate projections are provided for these two future climate periods, and include one scenario for 2030 and three scenarios for 2070: a 2030 central tendency, a 2070 central tendency, and two 2070 extreme scenarios (i.e., one drier with extreme warming and one wetter with moderate warming). The climate scenario development process represents a climate period analysis where historical interannual variability from January 1915 through December 2011 is preserved while the magnitude of events may be increased or decreased based on projected changes in precipitation and air temperature from general circulation models."
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Publication Date: Dec 13, 2018

Perspectives and Guidance for Climate Change Analysis
Description: Report of DWR's Climate Change Technical Advisory Group. Guidance on selecting a global climate model (GCM), planning for extreme conditions, and downscaling from models. SCVWD's own Sarah Young served on this committee.
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Publication Date: Aug 14, 2015

Modeling River Discharge Rates in California Watersheds
Description: (Potter, C., et al., 2010, Journal of Water and Climate Change)
Publication Date: Apr 14, 2010

Downscaling future climate scenarios to fine scales for hydrologic and ecological modeling and analysis
Description: "Evaluating the environmental impacts of climate change on water resources and biological components of the landscape is an integral part of hydrologic and ecological investigations, and the resultant land and resource management in the twenty-first century. Impacts of both climate and simulated hydrologic parameters on ecological processes are relevant at scales that reflect the heterogeneity and complexity of landscapes. At present, simulations of climate change available from global climate models [GCMs] require downscaling for hydrologic or ecological applications. . . . The methodology, which includes a sequence of rigorous analyses and calculations, is intended to reduce the addition of uncertainty to the climate data as a result of the downscaling while providing the fine-scale climate information necessary for ecological analyses. It results in new but consistent data sets for the US at 4 km, the southwest US at 270 m, and California at 90 m and illustrates the utility of fine-scale downscaling to analyses of ecological processes influenced by topographic complexity." (Flint, L. E. and A. L. Flint, 2012, Ecological Processes)
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Feb 10, 2012

Development and Application of Downscaled Hydroclimatic Predictor Variables for Use in Climate Vulnerability and Assessment Studies
Description: "This paper outlines the production of 270 meter grid-scale maps for 14 climate and derivative hydrologic variables for a region that encompasses the State of California and all the streams that flow into it. The paper describes the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a map-based, mechanistic model used to process the hydrological variables. Three historic and three future time periods of 30 years (1911-1940, 1941-1970, 1971-2000, 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) were developed that summarize 180 years of monthly historic and future climate values."
Source: California Climate Change Center
Publication Date: Jul 31, 2012

Considering climate change in water resources planning
Description: "A look at the DWR's efforts to address climate change impacts, as well as the modeling tools used in climate change analysis." Report of DWR staff presentations to the January 2016 meeting of the California Water Commission.
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Publication Date: Feb 17, 2016

Climate Change Technical Advisory Group
Description: Includes summaries of DWR models and scenarios for climate change.
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Publication Date: Mar 30, 2012

Climate Action Plan: Phase 2: Climate Change Analysis Guidance
Description: "The objective of this Climate Change Analysis Guidance is to guide the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) in its decision-making and assist DWR managers as they incorporate climate change analyses into their planning for DWR activities, such as strategic planning documents, investment decisions, risk assessments, and infrastructure development." Keywords: Phase II
Source: California. Dept. of Water Resources
Publication Date: Sep 13, 2018

Description: Research on precipitation, aerosols, and Pacific atmospheric rivers. Data is available for download.
Source: United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

California Climate Data Archive (CalClim)
Description: Temperature and precipitation data. Calclim is sponsored by the California Energy Commission and is a joint effort between the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and the Western Regional Climate Center.

California Climate Console
Description: Projections of temperature, precipitation, aridity, evapotranspiration, vegetation changes, climatic water deficity, and total ecosystem carbon. You can get results by counties, watersheds, and ecoregions.
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2016

Description: Many tools show maps with projections of temperature, precipitation, snowpack, sea-level rise, and wildfires for local regions within California.
Source: California. Energy Commission
Publication Date: Jun 7, 2011

Basin Characterization Model (BCM) Dataset
Description: "The Basin Characterization Model (BCM) dataset provides historical and projected climate and hydrology data at a 270 meter resolution, which is relevant for watershed-scale evaluation and planning. These data have formed the basis for multiple research projects and vulnerability assessments applying climate change projections to conservation decision-making, providing a common base-layer and set of assumptions across these projects." "The Basin Characterization Model (BCM) models the interactions of climate (rainfall and temperature) with empirically measured landscape attributes including topography, soils, and underlying geology. It is a grid-based model that calculates the water balance (the amount of water in each of the fractions of the total water budget, including runoff, recharge, and evapo-transpiration) for each 18-acre cell (270m resolution) in a given watershed in set time steps for the entire area. The California BCM uses a minimum time step of monthly results at the scale of a 270m grid, allowing the generation of scenarios at annual, seasonal, or monthly time steps."

Developing and applying uncertain global climate change projections for regional water management planning
Description: "Climate change may impact water resources management conditions in difficult-to-predict ways. A key challenge for water managers is how to incorporate highly uncertain information about potential climate change from global models into local- and regional-scale water management models and tools to support local planning. This paper presents a new method for developing large ensembles of local daily weather that reflect a wide range of plausible future climate change scenarios while preserving many statistical properties of local historical weather patterns. This method is demonstrated by evaluating the possible impact of climate change on the Inland Empire Utilities Agency service area in southern California. The analysis shows that climate change could impact the region, increasing outdoor water demand by up to 10% by 2040, decreasing local water supply by up to 40% by 2040, and decreasing sustainable groundwater yields by up to 15% by 2040. The range of plausible climate projections suggests the need for the region to augment its long-range water management plans to reduce its vulnerability to climate change." (Groves, D., 2008, Water Resources Research)
Source: Rand Corporation
Publication Date: Dec 10, 2008

Conjunctive Use in Response to Potential Climate Changes in the Central Valley, California
Description: "Climate change soon may yield changes in streamflow and groundwater storage, in regions suitable for agriculture, and in the interplay between natural and societal water supplies and demands. . . . An integrated supply-and-demand modelling framework used in this study may eventually be a blueprint for climate adaptation efforts for major aquifers all over the United States and internationally. . . . The projected declines in precipitation, increased temperatures, and more frequent sustained droughts in the climate scenario described here, coupled with modest growth in urban water demand, could result in adverse impacts on Central Valley water resources."
Source: United States. Geological Survey
Publication Date: Jun 7, 2012

A method for physically based model analysis of conjunctive use in response to potential climate changes
Description: "Potential climate change effects on aspects of conjunctive management of water resources can be evaluated by linking climate models with fully integrated groundwater– surface water models. The objective of this study is to develop a modeling system that links global climate models with regional hydrologic models, using the California Central Valley as a case study. The new method is a supply and demand modeling framework that can be used to simulate and analyze potential climate change and conjunctive use. Supplyconstrained and demand-driven linkages in the water system in the Central Valley are represented with the linked climate models, precipitation-runoff models, agricultural and native vegetation water use, and hydrologic flow models to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Simulated precipitation and temperature were used from the GFDL-A2 climate change scenario through the 21st century to drive a regional water balance mountain hydrologic watershed model (MHWM) for the surrounding watersheds in combination with a regional integrated hydrologic model of the Central Valley (CVHM). Application of this method demonstrates the potential transition from predominantly surface water to groundwater supply for agriculture with secondary effects that may limit this transition of conjunctive use. The particular scenario considered includes intermittent climatic droughts in the first half of the 21st century followed by severe persistent droughts in the second half of the 21st century. These climatic droughts do not yield a valley-wide operational drought but do cause reduced surface water deliveries and increased groundwater abstractions that may cause additional land subsidence, reduced water for riparian habitat, or changes in flows at the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. The method developed here can be used to explore conjunctive use adaptation options and hydrologic risk assessments in regional hydrologic systems throughout the world." (Hanson, R. T., et al., 2012, Water Resources Research)
Publication Date: Feb 4, 2012

Return to Climate Change Portal

Links on these pages go to sites of interest to the staff of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Listing a site on these pages does not constitute an endorsement by the District.

Created and maintained by Bob Teeter, District Librarian; organized by Sarah Young

   Copyright 2018 © Santa Clara Valley Water District Contact Us | Site Map